Predatory journals are journals that publish articles online with little or no peer review, low academic standards, and little credibility. They exist to publish scholarly journal articles for authors who require publications for their curricula vitae.

  • Unrealistically broad coverage
  • The website contains spelling and grammar errors.
  • Images are distorted/fuzzy, intended to look like something they are not, or which are unauthorized.
  • The homepage language targets authors.
  • The Index Copernicus Value is promoted on the website.
  • Description of the manuscript handling process is lacking.
  • Manuscripts are requested to be submitted via email.
  • Rapid publication is promised.
  • There is no retraction policy.
  • Information on whether and how journal content will be digitally preserved is absent.
  • The Article processing/publication charge is very low (e.g., < $150 USD).
  • Journals claiming to be open access either retain copyright of published research or fail to mention copyright.
  • Use think, check, submit site for more information.

The contact email address is non-professional and non-journal affiliated (e.g., or